How to make Ancient Baghdad Battery


The Baghdad Battery, also known as the Parthian Battery, refers to a set of artifacts believed by some to resemble galvanic cells, used for electroplating or electrotherapy Will happen. However, its exact purpose remains a source of controversy among historians. Here are the general steps for building an elementary Baghdad battery, which is a simple cell that you can make at home. Remember that the actual purpose and function of these so-called ‘batteries’ at the time of their construction remains a matter of ongoing debate.

materials needed:

1. A terracotta pot (about 5 inches high)
2. A copper tube or cylinder (just below the height of the terracotta pot)
3. An iron rod (fits inside the copper tube)
4. An acidic substance (lemon juice, grapefruit juice, or vinegar)
5. Insulation material (bitumen, clay, rubber, or wax)
6. copper wire lead
7. Voltmeter


1. **Preparing the Terracotta Pot**: Choose a terracotta pot that is about 5 inches tall. It needs to be high enough to accommodate the copper tube and iron rod.

2. **Insulating an iron rod**: Take an iron rod and insulate it. You can also use bitumen, clay, or modern materials such as rubber or wax. Be sure to leave some of the rod open at the top for electrical connections.

3. **Placing the copper cylinder**: Now, take the copper tube or cylinder and place it inside the terracotta pot. This should be just below the height of the terracotta pot to allow for an adequate seal.

4. **Connecting the iron rod**: Place the insulated iron rod inside the copper cylinder. It should be centralized and not touching the copper, allowing a path for electrons to move through.

5. **Adding Electrolyte**: Fill the vessel with an acidic substance to serve as the electrolyte. You can choose grapefruit juice, lemon juice or vinegar which will create a chemical reaction with the iron and copper.

6. **Sealing the container**: Seal the top of the terracotta pot, making sure it is not touching the iron rod or the copper cylinder. Only the tops of the metal components should be visible, both of which can be connected with copper wire leads.

7. **Testing the Battery**: Connect one end of the copper wire to the top of the copper cylinder and the other end to the top of the iron rod. Use a voltmeter to check whether the generated voltage is there or not. It should show a small amount of voltage, demonstrating a basic galvanic cell.

Remember, safety is paramount. It is always recommended to wear gloves and protective goggles when handling chemicals and electricity, even in a simple experiment like this. Also, note that the power generated by such a “battery” is very small and cannot be used for any significant electrical application without multiplying it with more cells in series or parallel.

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